SOME OF THE SYMBOLS OF THE FIRST DEGREE

By W.Bro. Ernest H. Shackleton, Templars Lodge 4302.

TRANSACTION No. 54.

Symbols being outward signs of an inward and spiritual concept representing to us the world of reality and forming a link with the unseen world, presenting truth in concrete form, awakening in us a more developed state of consciousness, made by creative thought - ritual symbolism - the whole idea of the Lodge is a symbol - its plan - its proportions - its furniture - the Officers - their vestments - when it is working the whole action symbolic, and within the Ritual are verbal, pictorial and action symbols.

Verbal:--The allegories and legendary history, the words, the catechisms and charges.

Pictorial:-Jewels, Mark glyphs, symbolical figures and Tracing Boards, Geometrical figures and Pavement.

Enated Symbols:-Initiation, Passings and Raisings. Processions and Signs.

It has been well said "Let there be no mechanical performance of duties. Work with precision in words and actions and breathe into the Ceremony a living spirit intensifying the meaning with a clarity of Vision so that almost consciously each Officer is re-experiencing himself all the trials through which his Candidate is now passing - so that the C. is made to feel that it is a great privilege to take part in the Ceremony."

So I am going to ask each one of you to recall with me for a moment the experiences you passed through on your first entrance into a Lodge and see how symbols play so important a part in the Ceremony of I.

Thomas Carlyle said, and truly said in Sartor Resartus that:-

"By symbols is man guided and commanded, made happy, made wretched. He everywhere finds himself encompassed with symbols recognised as such or not recognised; the Universe is but one vast symbol of God, nay, if thou wilt have it, what is man but a symbol of God; is not all that he does symbolical; a revelation of sense of the Mystic God given force that is in him, a Gospel of Freedom, which he, the Messiah of nature, preaches, as he can by word and act. Not a hut he builds but is the visible embodiment of a thought, but bears record of invisible things, but is, in the transcendental sense symbolic as well as real. What a man believes, lays to heart, and acts upon, concerning this mysterious universe and his duty and destiny in it, that, determines all the rest and is his religion."

Our C. is about to forge a link with the "INFINITE" and join in the ideals of the Brotherhood of human dignity and freedom - with one limit to liberty - that is the liberty of the other man - and the happiness of all.

In the Ancient Mysteries he is called "lnitia" because he is beginning a life of reason and virtue and is about to receive a superior Degree of Happiness here below. Thus the moment is come when a man realises the futility of his illusion of separateness and is about to offer the powers he has developed on the altar of service to his fellow-men - in the secrecy of his heart - he is prepared.

I wonder how many of you can tell me the words that lead to the 1st D. It is a question that some Irish Lodges use as a test of merit of a M.M. The words are said to be "B. t.. h... o. G.." and in some Districts " G... R........"

Brethren - the Ceremony of Initiation is really divided into two parts - the First - State of D.

1. Admission to the Lodge.

2. The Prayer of Dedication.

3. The Mystical Journeying or Perambulation.

4. The Declaration of Freedom, Motive and Perseverance.

5. The Advance from W. to E.

6. The Ob.

7. The Restoration to L.

These seven episodes forming the Old Rite of Illumination.

Seven episodes with a large range of ideas all within a short half of the Ceremony, each one calling for reflection. In the oldest days "The Hall of Ignorance" or The Hall of Truth in D.......... s."

The Ceremony is a series of Three, of Trinities, Three Ks., Steps, Lights, Greater and Lesser, Columns, Parts of Time, Tools, Secrets, Staves, Rungs, Principle Officers, Assistant Officers, Dangers, 3 sides of the Strongest Structural form - a Triangle of Force in each case.

The C. comes to our Lodge and outside the Door he meets the T., the Mason who by his presence covers the sacred precincts from all intrusion - there he is prepared - in the classical sense the word "C" means "One clothed in a white garment."

While this is being done the W. M. opens our Lodge with the assistance of the Officers and Brethren - the unified wills of all acting the opening in due form.

The principal object of Freemasonry is the collection and distribution of Spiritual Force for others - and we in Lodge secure that idea of ascending to higher levels by progressively "Opening Up" from one Degree to another and exposing in each a T.... B .... d.

After the Outer G. has confirmed that all is secure it is the I.P.M. who finally seals the Opening by the placing of the S. and C.

The W.M. represents the Rising Sun, and intellectual or spiritual power and knowledge which come from the E. He calls the L. into being from nothing - sits in the E.- but he does not close it. In the 1st D. he represents: Knowledge and Wisdom - Spirit.

The S.W. represents the Setting Sun. His caste mark is a Horizontal Line. In this D. Clear Conscience and Beauty - Man's Survival after death.

The J.W. represents the Sun at the Meridian - the Sunny side - Strength through life - the balance between Birth and Death -, Caste Mark - a Perpendicular Line. Body and Mind.

The cooperation of these three Officers in all Ds. being noted - must act together - if any form of progress is to take place.

The S.D. and the J.D. being messengers and conductors form the contact between Body (E.A.) with the Spirit.

S.D. link between E. and W.

J.D. link between W. and S.

The I.G. (under the immediate control of the J.W.) connects with the Outer Guard (The World of the Spirit) the Lodge with the Outer and material world.

The going to and from implied in the words "Carry all messages" is a relic of the former division of the Lodge into the Three Temples. It is probable that the JD. acted as I.G. to the FC Lodge presided over by the S.W., and the S.D. in a similar capacity to the M.M.'s Lodge in charge of the W.M. Thus the S.D. had "to bear all messages and commands from the W.M. to the S.W." who was in the chair of a F.C. Lodge, and if the message had to be transmitted to the J.W. in the E.A. Lodge it was the duty of the J.D. to take it on "from the S.W. to the J.W. and to see the same punctually obeyed." The J.D. would then return to the F.C. Lodge with his report that the W.M.'s Orders had been carried out and the S.D. having had "to await the return of the J.D." takes the message back to the W.M.

So you have built up a Two-Dimensional world -

The Inner (peopled by the Brethren)

W.M. Spirit

S.W. Soul MAN

J.W. Mind & Body

Man being his own Perfect Lodge.

The S.D. link between Spirit and Soul.

J.D. link between Soul and Mind.

I.G. The Inner world contacting the Outer.

O.G. the Outer (busy world outside).

These seven Officers - with a C. form the Perfect Cube.

Seven - you remember the seven glorious ones and the ONE. Seven equals three plus four The Triangle or Trinity added to the Sq. of Earth. the E.A.

Man, consisting, as he does of material, psychical and spiritual nature, it is in Freemasonry that the Spiritual Strength in him is developed and the betterment of the world is possible through his individual effort.

He comes well and worthily recommended. He is brought forward as a C. having sponsors for him, because Masonry has an object in view respecting his personality, something that can be accomplished in him as a result of his fellowship in the Brotherhood.

All enveloping d........ is his state to make him realize that he is coming out from his old condition and entering into another and new order, in which a different quality of I.... is communicated - another life entered - entailing a larger self knowledge and a deepened understanding "So that his eyes shall not perceive before his mind can conceive." A state of Birth.

Over the entrances to the old Temples were the words Know Thyself."

HUMILITY

Various parts of his body were made b... to indicate the mental stripping that is necessary. His L. K. is made b. as being the pont on which he will k... in the form of a Sq. and is a token of Humility.

FIDELITY

The R. A. was b... to show that he had neither offensive or defensive weapons about him and this is the h... and a a..which he will lay on the V. of the S.L. and it is this a.. that he will use to extend in the first S. This Right H.... symbolises Fidelity.

PURITY

He is divested of all M. and M.Ss. - denoting a poor and penniless state of "Birth" and also because we read in the 22nd Ch. of Exodus that when God directed Moses to build an Altar, God said, "If thou suffer a metal tool to pass thereon thou has polluted it," and King Solomon considered this a Divine law and forebade the sound of any metallic tools at the construction of the Holy T. There are many directions in the V.O.T.S.L. prohibiting the use of metal in any act of a sacrificial nature - where only flint knives are permitted and the custom of using flint axes is still followed by primitive races to-day in killing animals although the use of metal tools is well known to them.

SINCERITY

His L.B...... is b... as a living symbol that his heart shall ever be the sacred repository of our secrets and a token of Sincerity - it is touched with a P.... on entering to prove to the I.G. that the C. is a man (according to the Scottish Ritual) and to remind him of the nearness of death. (The first link with the coming event.)

CONSTANCY

His R.H. was s..... s..... symbolically to remind us of the duty of constancy and fidelity in his engagement, for by a very ancient formality of the East to confirm any agreement a man drew off his shoe and gave it to his neighbour and this was a testimony in Israel. Deutronomy Ch. 25 v. 5-10.

The shoe as a Masonic symbol reminds a C. that his solemn compact cannot be resiled from, but must be faithfully implemented, it is further to remind him that the ground upon which he now stands is Holy Ground. Exodus Ch. III. v. V.

This is called the "Rite of Discalceation" - that is giving testimony of sincerity of intention. In Scotland in the 1st D. the V.O.T.S.L. is open at Ruth IV v. 7-8, and when the Candidate is standifig in the N.E. Corner, he is asked to take off his shoe and hand it to the W.M. - verses 7 and 8 are then read to him, and the Brethren are called to witness that he has entered Freemasonry and is ratifying the bargain with the Lodge - his shoe is then returned to him.

AFFECTION

There is a C... T.. to typify that the C. ha on his own responsibilty come so far and that now there is no turning back, neither can he be impetuous else the P. will be held firmly. The C.T. is the Masonic symbol of the Bond of Affection which unites the Brethren.

A C.T. encloses the T.B. of the E.A. Degree at the four corners of which are four knots or tassels symbolic of the four Cardinal Virtues, Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence and justice. Here in this complete preparation you find Humility, Fidelity, Sincerity, Constancy and Affection being the necessary qualifications of an E.A. In the old days it was the duty of the Stewards to go out and not only prepare a C. but to explain to him these meanings as they proceeded with that part of the Ceremony.

It is of interest to hear that in the Dutch Lodge in South Africa a C. enters a chamber of Preparation, signs his Declaration and is left for a considerable time, to rest his mind.

Then he is led to another chamber of Meditation where he sits in a Chair and before him is a dimly lighted transparency "Man know Thyself."

Then on to a Third Chamber, of Silence. He acknowledges the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man. Is taught that silence is symbolical of the great Secrecy which every F. must observe as regards what he sees and hears within the T.

His attention is drawn to the figure of an OWL, emblematic of watchfulness.

He is handed Bread dipped in salt to eat, and water to drink. He then enters the Lodge for the Ceremony.

The Ks. are given and he stands ready to enter the unknown - the vibrations are answered - the barrier is removed and he stands before the Lodge.

In an old phraseology the three Ks. of the C. (the T. should hold the C.'s hand in such a position that it is he the C., who ks. for himself) were said to be:-

The three Masonic Messages to all Humanity.

Seek-and ye shall find. Ask-and ye shall have. Knock-and it shall be opened unto you.

Luke XI, v. 9-13.

In an old ritual the C. is asked how he applies this test. He should answer: "I sought in my mind, I asked a friend; I knocked and the door was opened unto me by a Brother."

- The I.G. admits on the P. in due form and holds the P. in the air for all to see.

He confirms that he is Free, and the Blessing is invoked and the Prayer of Dedication is spoken.

The Ks. of the 1st D. have a moral significance - indicating that the C. has three planes in front of him to conquer - the physical body with its impulses coming from the past, the Astral with its strong desires and emotions, and the Mental with its curiosity and waywardness. The fact that, he is well recommended is proof that he has conquered the physical body - though he has still to develop it - he will commence the special work of this D. which is to gain control of his Astral nature.

He is told he is of "Good Report," he has been found to ring true, in the old Egyptian rituals the Initiate must be "True of Voice." This is described as the Masonic Key - not made with mortal hands, he will meet it again in the last of his lessons. In the olden days a C. was asked of what is this key composed, and he answered "Of no metal W.M., it is the tongue of G.R."

He places his trust in G. He takes his first S... called "The Preparatory S..." off with the L.F. It is particularly appropriate at the commencement of a solemn ceremony for it means "Trample all evil beneath you." In the Hindu mythology Krishna is said to have so stepped on the serpent of evil and crushed it with his L.F. and throughout their rituals all good acions - all progress must be commenced with this S.

He now commemes on the "Rite of Circumambulation" part of a very old ceremony carrying on the mystic sodalities of the ancient civilisations - in the course of the Sun - if you would do reverence you must turn towards your right hand. In the old days the Rite of Circumambulation was rather different to ours - a clear space is left round the outside of the Lodge - this space being the outer path and he was conducted to each gate and after reception he was allowed on to the inner floor of the Lodge and passed round the inner path to show that he is properly prepared - thus was emphasised the gates of entry guarded by the S. and J. Ws. and that only when he has passed these points was he admitted to the presence of the W.M. He will trace this course again and again throughout his Masonic career - following the Ritual of the neophytes of the Druids on Stonehenge or the Prophets of Baal on Mount Carmel.

In Primitive Times this was known as the Rite of the Mystic Journey. Described thus:- " The C. begins to approach the E. by way of the N. the place of Darkness and Fear - on to the opposite - the S. the place of the Sun - of High Twelve - the scene of the labours, thence to the W. being the place of Closing - standing for Rest - the place for finishing and for presentations. The E. being the Glorious Centre - with the Star - lighting the E., the Great Dawn of Joy." In some of these old Initiations they speak of 27 circumambulations, each round of which contained on its path a "Test" for the Initiate.

The J.D. takes him round the Lodge and he ks. at the W's. gate and he is found "F. and of G.R." and receives the GRIP of FELLOWSHIP - which should be strong and reassuring - it is the first actual physical contact with the Lodge - via the J.W. - The S.W. presents him to the W.M.

He makes his Solemn Declarations.

The J.D. instructs him in the Ad..... - the Ss. of EVOLUTION, each of which carry him forward further than the previous one - something has been gained and nothing has been lost - symbolically his WILL to go on has increased - his Trust is so well placed.

In the old rituals the Ss. are said to be 9, 12 and 15 inches - so a yard away from the K. S........ I Bro. J.D.

His R. H. is on the V.O.T.S.L. while his L. is employed in supporting................... in the form of a Sq. (which is the correct position of the points) that the love of virtue may be centred in his heart.

He is obligated beneath the Crossed Wds. of the S. and J.D.s representing thereby the Triangular Door of the Ancient Egyptian Lodge, and the second of the symbolical Portals through which he has to pass (the first was at the Prayer and the third is the Portal through which he will pass out as a Bro.) and he sees L. - which is restored to him - his eyes being fixed on the V.O.T.S.L. - the Greatest and Truest guide of our Fraternity with the S. and Cs. Symbols of Revelation and Creation.

Some Lodges have the V. open at Psalms 133, but if it be open at any of its pages it is perfectly in order.

The V.O.T.S.L. was in use in 1600 from an old Obligation "So Help me G. and the Holy contents of this BOOK."

Brethren, to Freemasons the V.O.T.S.L., be it the Bible of the Christian, the Koran of the Mohammaden, the Zend Avesta of the Parsee, the Veda of the Hindu or the Tripitaka of the Buddhists, is the symbol of the Word of God, the Universal Father of all Mankind, who speaks to His children through many prophets in many tongues.

It may be of interest to quote the experiences of a Bro. who visited a Lodge in Bombay - he relates that when he attended an Initiation Ceremony there were five Bibles on the Altar, the M. was a Mohammaden, one of the Cs. who received the 1st D. was a Parsee, and the other a Hindu. The work was done in English in a "Dignified and impressive manner."

From the whole ethical system as taught by St. Paul and from the Gospel of St. John and then in the Book of Revelations we find a wonderful picture of the prevailing Mysteries, winding like a golden thread throughout these beautiful Books. The spirit and aim of these writings is the story of our Craft to-day and must lead to a belief that our system is so much older than this, coming to the world in its earliest ages and retaining the power to impress upon the world of the present, as it has unswervingly done in the past, the fact of God the Creator and the call to obedience made to all Mankind.

Here Brethren is the commencement of the Second Part of the Ceremony called the "State of Light " - seven more episodes:-

1. Revelation of the Greater and L. Lts. 2. The Entrustment with the Ss. 3. The Testing by the Ws. 4. The Investiture with the Clothing. 5. The Instruction in the N.E. 6. The Instruction in the W. T .... Is. 7. The Instruction in the T. B.

He has entered the "Hall of Truth in Lt." or the Hall of Learning" and has become a "Son of Lux."

He sees for the first time the S. and Cs.

The Sq. the symbol of Morality and the Cs. the emblem of Virtue, the true and only measure of the Bro's. conduct

A BROTHER

It is then that the W.M. says "Rise D. Ob. Bro. a.....g Ms." This is the moment that he is a Bro. The M. has said the words - which in the old phraseology "Have Made Him."

He is placed on the R. of the W.M. and informed of the L. Ls.

He now stands Perfectly erect, his F. in the F. of a Sq. Symbolising UNDERSTANDING by the Sq. and in the Ancient days the upright body symbolises WILL

He sees the "G" denoting the Universal Spirit of G. unifying all things, it is found in the C. of the L.-the L. is grouped around it.

He now comes to the most important S., the 1st R.S. in F. According to the Ancient Masons - the first S. towards the Light - with the WILL to UNDERSTAND. He should bring the H. of the R. F. into the H. of the L. at an angle of 90 degrees, thus forming the correct regular S. - the Tau, signifying LIFE the 3 R.Ss. together forming the Union of the Taus - symbolic of the Deity.

The P. is the age old one of the Assyrians for Traitors, one of the original Forms of which there are four, Gutteral (1st Degree), Pectoral, Manual and Pedal. It was the most terrible P. to the oldest races to be cast into the waves, and not decently buried with proper rites and is symbolical of SPIRITUAL DEATH.

It is to be noted that the Old Operative 1st Degree P. was worded.

"Of having my t....... cut out under my c..n and of being buried within the flood mark where no man shall know."

In the curious ordinances which were observed in the Reign of Henry VI for the conduct of the Court of Admiralty for the Humber, are enumerated various offences of a maritime connection, and their punishments. In view of the character of the Court, the punishment was generally to be inflicted at low-water mark, so as to be within the proper jurisdiction of the Admiralty, the chief officer of which, the Admiral of the Humber, being from the year 1451, the Mayor of Hull. The Court being met and consisting of "Masters Merchants and Mariners" with all others that do enjoy the King's stream with hook, net, or any engine, were addressed thus:-

"You Masters of the quest, if you, or any of you, discover or disclose anything of the King's secret counsel, or of the counsel of your fellows (for the present you are admitted to be King's Counsellors), you are to be, and shall be, had down to the low-water mark, where must be made three times, O Yes! for the King, and then and there this punishment, by the law prescribed shall be executed upon them; that is, their hands and feet bound, their throats cut, their tongues pulled out and their bodies thrown into the sea."

The S. is the outward S. of an inner concept - a word - an image - a gesture - which tells - to one who is of the inner circle the whole story of a secret - a revelation Instantaneous. In the oldest times known as the Humbling S.

In the old Operating working - The G. was to be "concealed" and the S. to be "heled" and the word never to be "revealed."

In the Cooke MSS. of 1490 the word "Hele" appears and is interpreted as "Must conceal."

The wisdom of the old times records:- "Offer not your right hand easily to everyone - do not draw up - nor endeavour to raise by extending your R. hand to the unadopted and unitiated."

Among the Ancient peoples the Hand was the symbol of the Builders and in their very early art the Supreme Being was frequently depicted by a Hand extending from a Cloud in the act of Benediction - the R. hand is said to be the emblem of FIDELITY - the L. symbolical of EQUITY.

St. Paul speaks of "giving the R. hand of Fellowship."

It is the accepted symbol of sincerity and a pledge of fidelity wherever Masons may meet over the surface of the world. The story we find in the V.O.T.S.L. at 11 Kings C. X. describes how one day King Jehu was driving his chariot along an Eastern road and on approaching Jehonadab the Son of Rechab, who was walking towards him, he stepped down and greeted him thus: "Is thy heart right, as my heart is with thy heart?" Jehonadab answered "It is." Then said the King: "If it be, give me thine hand," and he gave

him his hand and he took him up into the chariot. That, I believe, is the first instance on record of a hand-grip used to cement a bond of brotherhood and friendship and the sign of mutual heart sympathy.

The s..., the g.... the w ... s, by which we greet each other, should not be the whole of Masonry, but, the overflowing passion for that, for which Masonry exists, the building of Man. The formal acts they represent may still be important to us, as revelations of the Ancient Law, but, there is something, which they represent, that is far greater, something, they do not express, that far transcends, in importance, word and sign perfection - the use of heat and hand in the gathering of the great stones, the powers of Society and Mankind, of which we build again the Temple that has crumbled by the neglect of man, and, yet more the Temple that is in the heavens, higher still than the wildest concept of those who have toiled, day and night, in all ages of Masonry, in order to ensure the accurate submission of Man to the Divine Law, to try to live, and by that life to fill the world with an atmosphere, which is a conscience, an influence not seen but felt, that does not rival, but fills all, pervades all, and leads to eternal Brotherhood.

In the N. the C. is now presented with a new name which is Bro. Caution.

The newly made Bro. now goes round the L. and what does he see -

The W.M.'s Pedestal - a double cube - the earliest Altar was a rough unhewn stone set up like the stone Jacob set up at Bethel when he dreamed of the Ladder to Heaven - to be approached by walking in the course of the sun - from the E. by way of the S. It is first of all an Altar of Faith - the deep eternal Faith which underlies all creeds and overarches all beliefs - Faith in T.G.A.O.T.U., the Moral Law and Life Everlasting.

The Altar of Masonry is an Altar of Freedom - the Freedom of Faith - beyond the fact of the reality of G. it does not go - allowing every man to think of G. according to his experience of life and his vision of truth - and - it is an Altar of Fellowship as if to teach us that no man can learn the truth for another and no man can learn it alone. Masonry brings men together in united respect, sympathy and goodwill.

He sees the L. a double cube - stands on the Mosaic Pavement in size a double cube - symbolically representing the various incidents of Life - symbol of Joy and Sorrow, prosperity and adversity - Rest and Peace - Life and Death - a Symbol of EARTH. In the old days bordered by the Signs of the Zodiac.

He sees the Blazing Star.

The Immovable jewels he will now meet are the Rough Ashlar - the Brute Stone - a symbol of man immature of mind and still rough and unpolished - the E.A.

The Perfect Ashlar - man educated, virtuous and rendered a fit member of well organised society - ready to be tried and approved by the Sq. of God's Word, and the Cs of his own self convinving conscience.

They are called the - Silent Reminders" or "Silent Witnesses" of the design of Masonry for us.

In the old Lodges the T.B. was drawn in chalk each time the L. was opened, and obliterated at the close of the day. I read in an old book that in some Lodges, so careful were they "that no trace should be left" they used tape and little nails to form the T.B., thus preventing any marks or stains being discernable after the L. is closed.

The T.B. you know so well, Brethren, with Jacob's Ladder blending Earth with Heaven - comprising the whole teaching of Freemasonry surmounted by the beautiful Cup of Charity (the Biblical meaning of Charity is Love) of which our Bro. is about to learn.

The two Columns, the S.W.'s of the Doric Order, surmounted by a Terrestrial Globe, typifying Strength of the Sun - and whose outlook is toward the Horizon. The J.W.'s of the Corinthian Order surmounted by a Celestial Globe typifying Beauty of the Moon - sometimes said to mark the Sun at the Meridian. The Column of the S.W. erect at Labour - the Sun shining and the work proceeding. The Column of the J.W. is Horizontal at Labour - when the labours cease the sun goes down and the Column of the Moon is then erect.

The W.M.'s column of Wisdom combines the Strength and Beauty of these two. The M's. L. is never out, he is called to shine as a L. in the world, deriving his L. from above and his duty is to impart knowledge and instruction to the Brethren.

In the oldest religious ceremonies, the Flre, the Candle or the Torch is a symbol of the Presence of the Divine.

The C. is invested by the S.W.

The Masonic E.A. Apron is made of lamb skin, symbol of innocence (meaning "to do no harm or hurt") and purity - the condition required of Cs. in all initiations. The shape of the Apron is that of a Perfect Sq. and Brethren when each one of you wore it for the first time it was with the flap raised - it being thus a Perfect Sq. (quarternery) surmounted by a Triangle (a Triad) indicating the five senses by its five corners, by means of which we enter into relations with the material world around us. Then we have the three - sided emblem at the top added to the four - sided emblem beneath making seven, the Perfect Number - Man the seven-fold Being - himself the Perfect Lodge. The triangle symbolises the Spirit and the Strength of the G.A.O.T.U. - the Sq. representing Matter - the Man - the Triangle the three-fold attributes of the ONE and the Sq. the four elements. The E.A. starts his career with the triangle surmounting the Sq. (Spirit has not yet descended into matter) you remember the first Investiture of the Badge of an E.A., as he progresses in the Science, the descent takes place.

The Apron of an E.A., Triangle uppermost, symbolises the Spirit of God upon the Waters.

Another age - old symbol is to be found on each of you M.Ms., it is the Ancient Serpent of Wisdom and is placed on the bands of your respective aprons, so nothing seems to have been forgotten - the Badge of Innocence with the Circle of Wisdom strengthening and encircling the Bro.

Wisdom, Strength and Beauty together signifying HARMONY which "Spiritual Peace" and you all remember the admonition that the "Atmosphere of the Lodge must not be disturbed."

Under the Canadian Constitution the E.A. is provided with his own E.A. Apron at the time of Initiation - this Apron is then placed in a sealed packet and is not worn again until his death. The Tyler keeps a box of aprons for the use of all the Brethren.

In America the Apron Charge ends:-

It is yours to wear throughout an honourable life and at your death deposited upon the coffin which shall enclose your lifeless remains and with them laid beneath the clods of the Valley.

In America when the S.W. says "It will never disgrace you," the L. lead by the S.W. give what they call the "Great Shock" with their L. Hands, just as we do, accompanied simultaneously with a stamp with their L. feet - to impress upon the C. that he must for ever keep the King of Terrors beneath control. It is the first Salute we give him as a Bro., and he will not receive another until he is invested as an Off. in the L.

For Every Mason an Apron - for every Apron a Life - our symbolic gift to him - and his acceptance of it is his act of faith - and faith is the Certainty of the unknown - and in an old Ritual it is the "Gift of Brotherhood."

The C. should now wear white gloves for without a pure heart and clean hands - no one can stand in a Holy place. A gloved hand in the Middle ages was considered the Symbol of Peace. In the N.E. corner he now stands in the position of Rectitude. In the Authors L. and in the Midlands the C. has placed in the Sq. of his F. the Rough Ashlar.

The questions of certain m. and m.s. now arise - the absence of which has played so important a part in the Ceremony. It has become the C.'s business to learn that he is now amidst a different standard of values and when he comes again into possession of the old tokens he has to realise that their most important use is in causes not his own - this little episode so deeply and sincerely impressed by the W.M. assisted by the J.D. is called the "Rite of Destitution."

In the Ancient days the C. was told that he is to tread sure in the N.E. Corner - as he stands on the foundation corner of the building and that when the ravages of time or violence may have destroyed every vestige of the superstructure, that stone, when it is discovered, will prove that such a building did exist and that when he stands amidst depravity of manners, and the dangers of infection he will preserve his mind and memory uncontaminated - setting an example of the life he starts from the moment he departs from that spot.

An E.A. should serve his M. with Freedom, Fervency and Zeal - the three "Qualifications of Servitude."

Freedom - Chalk. Fervency - Charcoal, and Zeal - Clay (Earth) and are known as the " Excellent Qualities."

A Lewis in the L. denotes Strength and is found in the Perfect Ashlar - which should be suspended - the line suspending it is the symbol of the Thread of Life - Perfect Man and T.G.A.O.T.U.

The Gavel - the symbol of Order - and in the hands of the W.M. in the old days called "Hiram" - in the words of a ritual "As K. S. controlled the workman by the assistance of Hiram the Builder" to the E.A. it symbolises "Obedience."

The Rule (24" Gauge) is the symbol to measure our work in the world - the G.A.O.T.U. has assigned hours for labour and hours for refreshment beyond the possibility of mistake and this is the "ETERNAL RULE."

He must be aided by the Chisel of Education - and the Common Gavel - the force of conscience - these together remind us that persistent endeavour is necessary to the attainment of the True Sq. and polish of the Perfect Ashlar. It has been beautifully expressed by a famous sculptor who, when asked how he carved rough masses of stone into lovely statues, said - "I merely knock away with gavel and chisel the stone I do not need and the statue is there - it was there all the time - I only found it." In the V.O.T.S.L. "The Kingdom of Heaven is within you" - the perfection is there in him just as the Perfect Ashlar is within the Rough Ashlar.

So you see by taking just the Key Symbols, Morality and Virtue, in walking the Earth clothed in the White Apron throughout the Eternal Rule (which is Life), by persistent endeavour he reaches Perfection.

In the Bristol working when the C. returns to the L., having restored his personal comforts, he is told to sit at a table and to write the word - if he attempts to do so a gong is sounded and discord from the organ makes a din - his fingers are rapped and he is shown a man with his T. cut acc. His proper answer should be "I was told to be C..s"

He will hear of Jacob's Ladder - which has been handed down for our instruction - the foot of which is placed on the earth and with the foundation of the V.O.T.S.L. denoting the Stability of Providence - the top reaching to the Heaven, to show us that the designs of the G.A. are without limit - He will be told of F. H. and C. three of the Great Rungs past which he will have, to climb proving himself possessed of these virtues - that he has the first, he has shown.

The Spiritual Ladder of Ascent from Earth to Heaven with the Threefold way - through Active Life - the way a of Purification, the first. Through Inner Life, way of Illumination, the second. Through Contemplative Life, the Unitive way to attain true Friendship with the G.A. - the third.

Bro. L., R., and T., the Three Staves, the foundation and copestone - the cement and gloryof this Antient Fraternity, and Brethren you remember the words "not derogatory to exchange the sceptre for the trowel," in early workings the Trowel was the emblem of Circumspection" and was called the "Jewel of the E.A." He was extolled "Emblematically to stop up all interstices in the L. so that not a sound shall escape from within nor an eye pry from without, whereby our secrets and mysteries may become known to the popular world. This is from a Ritual of 1735 but is not included in our modern workings.

Our Ancient Charge depicting the duties of the Bros. of the Mystic Tie - the Threefold Tie - uniting Man with God, his Fellowmen and with himself - linking his life with the eternal enterprise - breaking the loneliness and organising us in spiritual faith and a common high endeavour - whose golden rule is:-

"Help me to need no aid from men That I may aid such men as need."

- From: My New Cut Ashlar. Songs from Books by Bro. Rudyard Kipling.

Bro. Rudyard Kipling's advice is " To know the ritual is not to know all - it is the inside meaning, not the words, that count - learn the words but get the Ritual into your spirit." Except he serve, no man may rule.

Bro. Kipling was initiated in the Lodge of Hope and Perseverance No. 782 in 1885 at the age of 19 at Lahore. This L. works its secrets, its lessons and its ceremonies through a stately ritual unwritten and handed down through the ages. His "The Mother L." is a wonderful picture of the Brethren.

So, Brethren, the Ceremony of our First Degree is a swift and comprehensive portrayal of the entrance of all men - into, firstly Physical Life, and secondly, into Spiritual Life, who have undertaken to acquire the Symbolical and spiritualised art of building the house of another life which starts at the moment of Initiation and the dawn of a new understanding. He will be a Mason as long as memory lasts.

I would suggest that our ceremonies are parts of an orderly tradition, unfolding through the centuries and emanating from the ancient secret Fraternities perpetuating the esoteric doctrines of antiquity - for I believe civilisation is unfolding to a predetermined plan, part of which, and an essential part is the discipline of each of us so that we can contribute to the final perfection of the whole by our influence in act and deed - by that spiritual communion of our great Brotherhood.

Brethren, we will leave our Bro. E.A. on the first of those steps in his Craft Journey - having learnt of the L.H. Pillar, which symbolises Space and Creation - he will climb further and progress to the 2nd Degree in which he will learn of the R.H. Pillar which symbolises Time and Regeneration and Pass between them on to the Path of Life, the Path that leads from the physical realm to the Spiritual realm along which he will travel to the 3rd Degree, which will bring him to the "Great Light" as the old Masters have it "To the Light of the Higher Understanding" unto the "Halls of Wisdom."

Thus we extend our congratulations and always receive with acclamation every newly - made Bro. and we trust that the tesselated pavement will ever remain to him as bright as when it first came from the quarries of Truth - the jewels ever brighten at his touch and the Great Lights remain undimmed and undecayed to eternity.

Our Fratemity admits of no innovation or variation - as it was in the beginning - it is now - and ever shall be - into the ages of ages.

And Brethren, as a final word may I say that we cannot all be rich or famous, but we can each be loyal and true of heart, undefiled by evil and undaunted by error, faithful and helpful to our Fellowmen, no voice of distress ever reaching our ears in vain and no hand seeking our assistance without response. We shall then know how to pray, how to love, and how to hope, and only then shall we be glad to live and not afraid to die.

S. M. I. B.